Toplessness refers to the state in which a woman's breasts , including her areola and nipples , are exposed, especially in a public place or in a visual medium. The male equivalent is barechestedness , also commonly called shirtlessness. Exposed breasts were and are normal in many indigenous societies. However, developed countries have social norms around female modesty , often enforced by legal statutes , that require women to cover their breasts in public. In many jurisdictions, women who expose their breasts can be prosecuted for indecent exposure , although public breastfeeding is often exempted from public indecency laws.
Gender Differences in the Perception of Personalized Half-Nude Female Bodies
The Nudity Effect On Men Versus Women
In the current study, we investigated how the perception of half-nude female body representations is altered by framing with information about the presented person. Images from tabloid newspapers were presented to male and female observers, and rated according to their aesthetic appeal while neurofunctional correlates were assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. While a generally stronger appetitive response might be expected in men, our results show a significant interaction between framing condition and gender of the observer. Men rated female bodies as more pleasing when presented without personal information, whereas women expressed more aesthetic appeal when information was added. Neuroimaging data revealed gender differences in processing body representations with additional personal information. In women, there was a stronger involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex and adjacent ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and in male observers a higher engagement of the bilateral inferior parietal cortex, when compared to each other respectively. These gender differences in framing effects particularly highlight higher aesthetic appeal and reward processing in women when female bodies are personalized.
Why Female Nudity Isn't Obscene, But Is Threatening to a Sexist Status Quo
At a women's-only club, it's a special event night, planned well in advance for the club members. It's a night of dinner, drinks, mingling, chatting, flirting, and dancing. And naked men. It's a clothed-female naked-male party.
The newest issue of HipMama magazine features a photograph of artist Ana Alvarez-Errecald standing, topless, holding her baby. He's wearing a Spiderman costume and she is wearing the mask. The child is breastfeeding at one of her breasts and holding his hand over the other. After distributors expressed concern about having the magazine on US newsstands, HipMama was forced to publish not one, but two, covers: a "family-friendly" one that ensured it would be sold on newsstands and in supermarkets in which her bared breast is hidden by a large red dot and another, mailed to subscribers, in which her child's hand on her breast will be apparent. Alvarez-Errecald's most prominent earlier work, a diptych titled " The Birth of My Daughter ," is also being published in the magazine.